Safeguarding Children Guidance: KCSIE and WTSC Changes
If you work with or around children, such as in a school, safeguarding is an important responsibility that you must take seriously. In order to properly fulfil your safeguarding duties, you need to understand what the law requires and keep up to date with any amendments or changes to it.
The government frequently revisits safeguarding statutory guidance documents, with the aim of strengthening safeguarding procedures and making guidance as clear as possible. As a result, it can be difficult to keep track of new requirements and how they impact your role.
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Therefore, this guide focuses on Working Together to Safeguard Children and Keeping Children Safe in Education, as they outline the requirements of those responsible for safeguarding children.
We regularly monitor key changes to WTSC and KCSIE, and have updated this guide to reflect the most recent amends in 2021.
As these two documents regularly receive updates, it’s crucial for you to keep on top of the key changes. Doing so will enable you to make any necessary amends to your safeguarding policies or implement new procedures in your organisation, so you can continue to keep children safe from harm.
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What Safeguarding Children Legislation and Statutory Guidance Applies to You?
What Safeguarding Children Legislation and Statutory Guidance Applies to You?
There are a number of policies, legislation, and statutory guidance documents that the Department for Education (the governing body for safeguarding children) have created and updated over time. These apply to all local authorities and organisations who are responsible for children’s safety.
For example, it applies to schools, youth groups and charities, and sports clubs. Simply put, safeguarding applies to anyone who works with or around children.
The main pieces of legislation and guidance documents that you should be aware of include:
- The Children Act 1989 (as amended).
- The Children and Social Work Act 2017.
- The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006.
- Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018.
- Keeping Children Safe in Education 2021.
There are also others worth noting, which have prompted changes to safeguarding requirements over time. This guide references these throughout where relevant:
- GDPR and the Data Protection Act 2018.
- Information Sharing: Advice for Practitioners 2018.
- Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment Between Children in Schools and Colleges (guidance document) 2018 (and updates from 2021).
- Childcare (Early Years Provision Free of Charge) (Extended Entitlement) (Amendment) Regulations 2018.
- Childcare Act 2006 (as amended in 2018).
If you have safeguarding responsibilities, these all apply to you. It’s important to familiarise yourself with the two statutory guidance documents (Working Together to Safeguard Children and Keeping Children Safe in Education) as these detail all the requirements in an accessible format for you.
Working Together to Safeguard Children
Working Together to Safeguard Children
The Working Together to Safeguard Children statutory guidance document sets out the responsibilities that all organisations in England must fulfil to safeguard children and young people (which applies to anyone under the age of 18). It explains the need for local authorities (including the police and health services) and other relevant agencies to coordinate with each other, so they can appropriately respond to safeguarding concerns and promote children’s welfare.
Key amendments to the guidance as of 2015:
Referral of Allegations Against Those Working with Children.
This update aimed to improve coordination and make sure that those who deal with allegations are qualified social workers. Organisations must route any allegations made against people who work with children through children’s social care. The new proposals meant that referrals could be dealt with alongside child welfare concerns.
Definition of Serious Harm.
To help Local Safeguarding Children Boards (now known as Local Safeguarding Partners) make better-informed decisions about whether a case is notifiable (i.e. whether they should report it to the authorities), the updated edition of Working Together included a definition of ‘seriously harmed’. It stated that serious harm includes, but is not limited to, cases, where the child has sustained, as a result of abuse or neglect, (a) potentially life-threatening injury or (b) serious or likely long-term impairment of physical/mental health or physical, intellectual, emotional, social, or behavioural development.
Notifiable Incidents Involving the Care of a Child.
To clarify what constitutes a ‘notifiable incident’, the government added a new section on notifiable incidents. This section listed the criteria that an incident must meet in order to be defined as a notifiable incident. The section has since been made redundant however, as Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panels have replaced the Serious Case Review Panels and new requirements are in place.
This update explained that all organisations with safeguarding duties must have an internal whistleblowing policy. The policy should be clear about procedures and integrated into training, so that all employees are aware of guidelines. It also states that the policy should reflect the principles of Sir Robert Francis’ ‘Freedom to Speak Up Review’.
Preventable Child Deaths.
This update included a new definition of preventable child deaths: “those in which modifiable factors may have contributed to the death. These are factors defined as those, where, if actions could be taken through national or local interventions, the risk of future child deaths could be reduced.” Requirements for reviewing child deaths has since been amended, but this definition is still relevant.
LSCB Annual Reports.
The new guidance set out the requirements for LSBCs (now known as local safeguarding partners) to conduct regular assessments of the partners’ responses to child sexual exploitation and include information on the outcome of these assessments. Duties surrounding reports have since altered slightly, though the 2018 guidance still requires LSPs to produce annual reports.
As well as these key changes, the 2015 update also clearly clarified that the Working Together guidance – alongside Keeping Children Safe in Education – applies to all schools, including independent schools, academies, and free schools.
Unless otherwise stated, the amendments listed above still stand and are relevant to anyone who must follow the guidance set out in Working Together.
Key amendments to the guidance as of 2018:
Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018 was put in place following the introduction of the Children and Social Work Act 2017, which made changes to various aspects of child protection, child welfare, social work, and other aspects of safeguarding.
Aside from the changes listed below, there have been other minor tweaks in places. These include slight alterations to terminology and stronger references to providing relevant training to staff. The information below only details the key amendments that are likely to impact your safeguarding system and require you to make changes.
LSCBs are now known as Local Safeguarding Partners (or partnerships).
LSPs in each area must consist of three partners: local authorities, chief officers of police, and clinical commissioning groups. The guidance states that they share equal responsibility and must work together with relevant agencies to safeguard children. Partnerships are expected to name schools and other educational providers as relevant agencies.
As of the 29th June 2018, local authorities must transition from LSCBs to safeguarding partners and transfer child death review partner arrangements by the 29th September 2019. After they publish their arrangements, they have up to 3 months to implement them.
Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel.
As of June 2018, the Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel (CSPRP) replaced the Serious Case Review Panel. They are now in charge of overseeing serious safeguarding cases and commissioning national reviews of cases. This was previously the responsibility of LSCBs.
Child Death Reviews are now the responsibility of Child Death Review Partners (Local Authority and Clinical Commissioning Group). They can organise these along the same lines as the old Child Death Overview Panels and should appoint other partners to contribute to the reviews. For example, they should appoint a designated doctor.
Local safeguarding partners must report to the CSPRP if: a child dies or is seriously harmed in the local authority’s area, or dies outside of England but normally resides in the local authority’s area, as a result of known or suspected cases of child abuse or neglect.
New sections on assessing need and providing help.
The guidance now contains a list of vulnerabilities that may potentially put a child at greater need for early help. For example, children who have disabilities, who show signs of being drawn into anti-social or criminal behaviour, misuse of drugs or alcohol, those subject to difficult family circumstances, and more.
It also contains a new section on assessments for disabled children and their carers, young carers, and children in secure youth establishments.
Contextual safeguarding is a new section that expands on child protection procedures and improve their effectiveness. It is “an approach to understanding, and responding to, young people’s experiences of significant harm beyond their families.” (Definition taken from the Contextual Safeguarding Network).
It emphasises the importance of considering every aspect of a child’s life that may impact their wellbeing, rather than limiting it to one area. Therefore, it is crucial for those assessing the needs of children to consider wider environmental factors that may be affecting their safety collectively. For example, they may be at risk of extremism if they are bullied at school and seek a sense of belonging. Issues at home could worsen this, such as if their parents neglect their needs.
The guidance document now includes a section about data protection and its changes following GDPR and the Data Protection Act 2018. It also addresses misconceptions surrounding data protection and sharing information, particularly in the case of reporting concerns. It clarifies that the DPA and GDPR do not prevent organisations from collecting and sharing personal information, and that there are situations where it’s not necessary to gain consent. For example, those where a child’s or young person’s safety is at risk.
Responsibilities of organisations working with children and families.
This version has expanded on and introduced sections relating to:
- People in positions of trust. This new section clarifies that organisations who work with children and their families must have sufficient policies in place, primarily those for dealing with allegations against people working with children. It states that an allegation may relate to someone who works with children and has a) behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed, a child, b) potentially committed a criminal offence against, or related to, a child, or c) behaved towards a child (or children) in a manner that indicates they may pose a risk of harming them.
- Early years and childcare. The section on early years and childcare includes a new requirement: all early year providers must implement a policy and procedure to safeguard children. The policy must explain the actions they’ll take as a result of a safeguarding concern. It must also cover mobile phones and cameras.
Other new and amended sections include those on designated health professionals, children’s homes, voluntary and charity organisations etc., and sports clubs and organisations.
Keeping Children Safe in Education
Keeping Children Safe in Education
All education settings (including schools, colleges, and nurseries) must follow the statutory guidance set out in Keeping Children Safe in Education (KCSIE 2020 is active until 1st Sept, and KCSIE 2021 is active from 1st Sept). Keeping Children Safe in Education clearly explains how to fulfil your safeguarding duties and promote the welfare of children. Like Working Together, ‘children’ refers to anyone under the age of 18.
Key amendments to the guidance as of 2016:
Safeguarding is Everybody’s Responsibility.
The 2016 update included a clear statement that safeguarding is everyone’s responsibility. The new guidance stated that ‘everyone who comes into contact with children and their families and carers has a role to play in safeguarding children’. It encouraged professionals to take a child-centred approach and to consider the best interests of a child at all times.
Professionals Need to Share Information.
The update stated that no single person can understand the full picture of a child’s life. Therefore, all professionals must share information to get a fuller picture of the child’s needs and circumstances.
Better Awareness Needed of the ‘Early Help Process’.
The update included new guidance on early help, stating that ‘all school and college staff should be prepared to identify children who may benefit from early help’. It defined early help as ‘providing support as soon as a problem emerges at any point in a child’s life, from the foundation years through to the teenage years’. Furthermore, it emphasised the importance of staff understanding how to complete early help assessments and keeping these cases under constant review.
What to Do If You Have Concerns.
The update in 2016 also clarified the protocols that staff must follow if there is concern about a child. It also included further updated advice about what staff should do when they fear a child is in immediate danger (i.e. contact the police or children’s social care immediately). Anyone can make a referral in these circumstances; it does not need to be the designated safeguarding lead. However, you should inform the safeguarding lead about the action as soon as possible.
The guidance included a section on whistleblowing procedures, including information on what to do if staff feel unable to report a concern in their organisation. It also advised staff who feel unable to use the internal route of whistleblowing to contact the NSPCC whistleblowing helpline. In circumstances where there are concerns surrounding the head teacher, staff should report allegations to the designated officers at their local authority.
Complexity of Abuse.
The guidance included a new definition of abuse to acknowledge and clarify its complexity. It stated that abuse is ‘a form of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may face abuse in a family or in an institutional or community setting from those known to them or, more rarely, by others (e.g. via the internet). They may be abused by an adult or adults or by another child or children.’
Children Missing from Education.
The guidance provided further information on a child missing from education, listing that this could indicate ‘abuse or neglect and such children are at risk of being victims of harm, exploitation or radicalisation.’ It also stated that ‘school and college staff should follow their procedures for unauthorised absence and for dealing with children that go missing from education, particularly on repeat occasions’.
It also emphasised the importance of schools and colleges understanding other potential safeguarding concerns. For example, travelling to conflict zones, female genital mutilation, and forced marriage.
Unless otherwise stated, the amendments listed above still stand and are relevant to anyone who must follow the guidance set out in Keeping Children Safe. Later versions of the guidance are usually additional amendments that expand on existing requirements.
Key amendments to the guidance as of 2018:
The Keeping Children Safe in Education guidance document received several changes and additions to improve safeguarding procedures in 2018.
Peer-on-peer abuse, child sexual exploitation, and sexual violence and harassment.
The guidance placed stronger emphasis on tackling peer-on-peer abuse and stated that schools’ policies must clearly explain how they’ll deal with these issues.
More specifically, the guidance outlined a clear definition of what the different forms of peer-on-peer abuse are. It stated that it can include ‘bullying (including cyberbullying); sexual violence and sexual harassment; physical abuse such as hitting, kicking, shaking, biting, hair pulling, or otherwise causing physical harm; sexting and initiating/hazing type violence and rituals’. Furthermore, it explained what the school’s child protection policy should include and how the school will support children affected by peer on peer abuse. For example, the policy should state that “abuse is abuse and should never be tolerated or passed off as “banter”, “just having a laugh” or “part of growing up””.
Another key addition was new information about sexual violence and sexual harassment. As the government guidance document “Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment Between Children in Schools and Colleges” was published, Keeping Children Safe included a summary of this document. The summary clarified that a school’s systems, policies, and training must address sexual violence and sexual harassment between children, so staff know how to help prevent it.
It stated that “Staff should be aware of the importance of:
- Making clear that sexual violence and sexual harassment is not acceptable, will never be tolerated and is not an inevitable part of growing up;
- Not tolerating or dismissing sexual violence or sexual harassment as “banter”, “part of growing up”, “just having a laugh” or “boys being boys”; and
- Challenging behaviours (potentially criminal in nature), such as grabbing bottoms, breasts and genitalia, flicking bras and lifting up skirts. Dismissing or tolerating such behaviours risks normalising them.”
The guidance included references to the UK Council for Child Internet Safety (UKCCIS), who emphasise the importance of monitoring online safety. In particular, they highlight sexting as a risk and offer advice for schools and colleges regarding online safety. They also remind schools that children can easily share photos and videos online, particularly through their smartphones. KCSIE linked to UKCCIS’s guidance document about online safety in schools and other useful guides that can help schools improve their policies regarding sexting incidents.
Students with SEN and disabilities.
Schools were strongly reminded to ensure that students with SEN and disabilities have a greater availability of mentoring and support, as they could be more vulnerable to safeguarding issues. It also addressed using reasonable force for students with SEN and disabilities. It emphasised that schools need to be cautious about using it and should “carefully recognise the additional vulnerability of these groups.”
This section closely resembled the one in Working Together. Contextual safeguarding expanded on child protection procedures and improved their effectiveness with “an approach to understanding, and responding to, young people’s experiences of significant harm beyond their families.” (Definition taken from the Contextual Safeguarding Network).
It emphasised the importance of considering every aspect of a child’s life that may impact their wellbeing, rather than limiting it to one area – such as their family life. Therefore, it is crucial for those assessing the needs of children to consider wider environmental factors that may be affecting their safety collectively. For example, they may be at risk of extremism if they are bullied at school and seek a sense of belonging. Issues at home could worsen this, such as if their parents neglect their needs.
The guidance drew attention to the fact that schools must always have a suitable emergency contact, particularly if there is a safeguarding issue at home. Therefore, it strongly recommends that schools have at least two emergency contacts for every child.
Risk assessments for volunteers.
As of 2018, schools were required to carry out a risk assessment for volunteers, in order to determine whether they should then carry out an enhanced DBS check for those not engaged in regular activity.
The assessment should cover:
- “The nature of the work with children.
- What the establishment knows about the volunteer, including formal or informal information offered by staff, parents and other volunteers.
- Whether the volunteer has other employment or undertakes voluntary activities where references can advise on suitability.
- Whether the role is eligible for an enhanced DBS check.”
Details of the assessment should be recorded.
The guidance stated that sole proprietors must select a suitable designated safeguarding lead, who must be sufficiently independent from the family running the school.
Information about S128 checks – which determine whether a person has been prohibited from managing a school – was made much clearer. Historically, the guidance simply stated that the checks apply to people in management positions. However, the new guidance clarified that this includes governors, trustees, headteachers, members of the senior leadership team, and departmental heads.
The guidance stated that, if students need to be placed in an alternative provision, the school must obtain a written statement from the alternate provider. This statement must confirm that the provider has completed all the necessary vetting and barring checks on staff, to ensure the students’ safety.
All staff must read Keeping Children Safe in Education Part 1, and those who work directly with children must also read Annex A. The Annex A section included four new key topics: children and the court system, when children are witnesses; children with family members in prison; criminal exploitation of children; and homelessness.
Disqualification by association.
Following government consultation, the Childcare (Early Years Provision Free of Charge) (Extended Entitlement) (Amendment) Regulations 2018 amended the Childcare Act 2006. The changes related to disqualification by association, which historically could apply to staff, such as those in schools, providing child care. They could be prohibited from working with children if someone in their household made a conviction.
However, as of the 2018 update this only applies to domestic premises, not schools. Staff may still be disqualified due to offences they commit, but schools need to carry out suitable DBS checks to determine whether this is the case. Furthermore, the schools’ policy should reflect this and they should take care when recruiting staff to ensure they don’t include reference to the previous disqualification standards in their questions.
It’s also worth noting that this change does not impact settings specifically for early years provision.
Like Working Together, Keeping Children Safe emphasises that GDPR and the Data Protection Act do not affect your ability to collect information and report safeguarding concerns. The guidance stated that “fears about sharing information must not be allowed to stand in the way of the need to promote the welfare and protect the safety of children.”
It also stated that you can find further advice about this topic in the Information Sharing: Advice for Practitioners guidance document. This document also includes the seven golden rules for sharing information.
Key amendments to the guidance as of 2019:
In September 2019, KCSIE received some additions and changes to reflect new requirements and guidelines that education settings should follow. The updates were not as substantial as previous years, but they were still vital for those who work with children to understand and reflect in updated safeguarding policies.
The main changes in Keeping Children Safe in Education 2019 included guidance on:
- Upskirting. KCSIE 2019 included a reference to upskirting, as it has officially become a criminal offence. Upskirting refers to taking a picture under a person’s clothing without them knowing. It is listed under peer on peer abuse and sexual harassment. All staff must understand their setting’s policy and procedures so they can help to prevent it.
- Serious and honour-based violence. KCSIE 2019 contained an additional paragraph about serious violence and how to identify risks. It also emphasised that honour-based violence includes FGM and forced marriage and provides advice on what to do if staff have concerns.
- Safeguarding partners/partnerships. As of September 2019, safeguarding partnerships fully replaced local safeguarding children’s boards (LSBCs).
- Relationships and sex education. In September 2020 the Department for Education is introducing compulsory Relationships Education for primary pupils and Relationships and Sex Education (RSE) for secondary pupils. Schools will be required to teach these subjects, so they must be aware of what the statutory guidance states. KCSIE referenced this to ensure education settings were aware. You can find a link to guidance for this topic at the following link: Relationships Education, Relationships and Sex Education, and Health Education in England
- New Ofsted inspections framework. KCSIE included additional information about changes to Ofsted’s Education Inspection Framework. It stated that, as of September 2019, Ofsted inspections of early years, schools, and post-16 provision will be carried out under Ofsted’s Education Inspection Framework and includes a link: Education inspection framework (EIF).
- Teaching online safety guidance. KCSIE 2019 linked to the non-statutory guidance document regarding teaching online safety in school, which was published by the Department for Education. You can find this document here: Teaching online safety in school.
It’s also worth noting that KCSIE removed references to the School Inspection Service, as they have closed and so no longer inspect independent schools.
Key amendments to the guidance as of 2020:
2020 has been an uncertain year for the education sector, but Keeping Children Safe in Education has received some amendments to include new guidance and to expand on existing sections. We will look at these amends based on which parts they have affected, including the annexes.
The first thing to note is that schools and colleges may be operating differently as a result of COVID-19 and they should adapt their procedures, taking into account the government’s interim safeguarding guidance first published on 27 March 2020.
- The definition of ‘safeguarding’. This has been amended to make it clear that both mental and physical health are relevant to safeguarding and the welfare of children. Those who work with children should consider both these factors so they have a more complete picture of a child’s wellbeing.
- Contextual safeguarding. As safeguarding incidents and behaviours can be associated with external factors, all staff (but particularly the DSL) should be reminded to consider whether a child is at risk of extra-familial abuse or exploitation i.e. contextual safeguarding. It’s worth noting however that this term has been removed from the 2020 guidance and it simply refers to ‘context’.
- County Lines. Additional guidance has been added for county lines, as well as criminal exploitation and serious violence, to assist schools in identifying children at risk of these. Page 85 contains a dedicated section on county lines.
- Mental Health concerns. The guidance contains new information regarding links between mental health and safeguarding. It has references to Public Health England mental health and wellbeing resources, as well as Mental Health and Behaviour in Schools guidance.
- Peer on peer abuse. Intimate personal relationships between peers, as well as a reference to hazing-type violence and rituals, are now included in the guidance. Sexual harassment can include sexual comments, remarks and/or jokes and may take place online or in person, and may be standalone or as part of wider abuse.
- Relationship and Sex Education. The guidance contains new wording to reflect that schools now have flexibility regarding how they deliver Relationship Education and Relationships and Sex Education for the first year of its compulsory teaching.
- Allegations Management. The guidance places emphasis on staff raising safeguarding concerns or allegations about a member of staff, and now specifically includes supply staff and volunteers. It also signposts where to find information about addressing allegations or concerns (under Part 4 of KCSIE).
- Most vulnerable children. There is a new section regarding safeguarding for children who are at greater risk of harm, e.g. they need a social worker or require mental health support. The emphasis is on multi agency working to provide support to vulnerable children. Furthermore, note that training for senior mental health leads will be funded for all maintained schools and colleges by 2025.
- Data protection. The guidance has been updated regarding the relationship between data protection and safeguarding, including reference to the new data protection tool (page 23).
Although there are no changes to the statutory requirements in Part 4, there are a few tweaks to note:
- Emphasis that supply teachers and volunteers are included under ‘other staff’.
- Clarification that schools must consider transferable risk from incidents outside of school, where staff behaved or may have behaved in a way that indicates that the person may not be suitable to work with children (e.g. domestic violence).
- Guidance on managing allegations against supply teachers, and on handling ‘low level’ concerns that do not meet the harm threshold. The guidance provides clarity that it’s still the responsibility of the school or college to ensure allegations are dealt with appropriately, in conjunction with the agency where applicable, even if they are not the employer of the individual (i.e. in the case of supply teachers and volunteers).
- Child Criminal Exploitation. This is covered in more detail, including county lines, to assist staff in recognising warning signs associated with these concerns. It also includes a reminder that safeguarding referrals should be considered.
- Domestic abuse. Children may witness, and be affected by, domestic abuse between family members. The National Domestic Abuse Helpline and details on Operation Encompass are now included.
- Radicalisation and the Prevent duty. The guidance provides additional information about these, as well as detailing terrorism as a by-product of radicalisation. A reminder has also been included for the DSL that they must be aware of local procedures for making Prevent referrals. Additional support intended to complement Prevent, including updated advice for schools, has also been published and referenced.
- Honour-based abuse. This was previously known as honour-based violence. Its new name now acknowledges that it may include non-violent forms of abuse.
- Peer on peer abuse and domestic violence. The guidance clarifies that peer on peer abuse and domestic abuse can occur within an intimate partner relationship.
- Upskirting. The definition has been updated to include that a person of any gender can be a victim of upskirting.
Annex B has added advice for DSLs, who have a responsibility to raise awareness for safeguarding, including by sharing information with teachers and school leaders about the welfare issues that children in their school have experienced. More specifically, it gives advice on the needs of children with a social worker and suggests actions the DSL could take.
Annex C includes a number of additional resources and advice regarding online learning, including a link to the Government guidance for home learning due to COVID-19.
Key amendments to the guidance as of 2021:
In 2021, Keeping Children Safe in Education received further updates, which we’ll summarise in the bullet points below.
- Whilst staff who work with children must read the full Part 1 of KCSIE, those who don’t work directly with children can now read a condensed version, found in Annex A.
- Online Safety has been made more prominent by being moved to Part 2 – staff training must now include online safety, and it must be included in all relevant policies. Online safety policies and procedures should be reviewed at least annually.
- There are additions to be made to a school’s Child Protection and Safeguarding Policy (detailed below).
- There is new and further information about types of abuse, such as sexual violence and harassment (including by peers) and child criminal and sexual exploitation.
- Allegations Management has been updated and clarified to set out clearly two levels of allegations against staff: (a) those that meet the threshold and will be case-managed by the Headteacher or Chair of Governors if the allegation is against the Head, and (b) low-level concerns that do not meet the threshold and can be dealt with by the school internally.
- There is new information on pre-employment checks, and guidance on the recruitment process is set out in chronological order (giving best practice guidance for the process).
- Child Protection and Safeguarding Policy
- Further information is given about peer on peer abuse – schools should have a zero-tolerance and whole-school approach to the issue, and recognise that this type of behaviour is occurring (even when it is not formally being reported). They should also have procedures for dealing with peer on peer abuse, including a functional reporting system which is well-promoted and both accessible and simple to understand.
- Further information is given about serious violence.
- There is recognition that there might be additional barriers for staff when recognising abuse for children with SEND.
- The bullying section should be updated to include cyber-bullying, prejudice, and discriminatory bullying.
- The policy must include information about sexual harassment and violence. Updates should include preventative measures.
- This must be in line with Part 3 of KCSIE.
- This must reflect Part 4 of KCSIE.
- Online safety should form part of staff safeguarding training at induction and in the update programme.
- The safeguarding training provided should include a whole-school approach and should include consideration of managing behaviour, as set out in the Teaching Standards.
- Further information is included about the role of Mental Health Lead and government-backed schemes for training.
- The headteacher is responsible for ensuring policies and procedures are known and followed by all staff.
- Governing bodies and proprietors should ensure that there is a whole-school approach to safeguarding – safeguarding and child protection should be at the front of thinking and should underpin relevant policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should all operate with the best interests of the child at their heart.
- Governing bodies/proprietors and school leaders should ensure that when there is a safeguarding concern, the child’s wishes and feelings are accounted for when deciding on appropriate actions, and that the systems for dealing with safeguarding issues are “well-promoted, easy to understand and accessible for children confidently to report abuse, knowing their concerns will be treated seriously, and knowing they can safely express their views and give feedback”.
- Governing bodies and proprietors should ensure, when fulfilling their responsibility to teach children about safeguarding (including online safety), that this learning is – where necessary – tailored and contextualised for individuals, including more vulnerable children, victims of abuse, and some SEND children.
- The school’s DSL is now additionally responsible for:
- Promoting supportive relationships with parents and those with parental responsibility.
- Together with others (such as the headteacher), ensuring educational outcomes of children in need – including knowing who this cohort are and understanding their progress and attainment.
- Helping teaching staff to provide additional support and reasonable adjustments for children who have or had a social worker so that they can reach their potential – giving consideration to the fact that even after statutory intervention there can be a lasting impact on their educational outcomes.
- Being aware of their crucial role in supporting children who have been involved in the care system and the long-lasting impact adversity can have on children in terms of education, mental health, behaviour, and health and wellbeing, as well as being able to respond to this.
- Recognising the barriers that stop children from reporting issues and how to build trust to help with this.
- Building a culture of listening and making sure the wishes and feelings of the children are considered.
- Knowing how to identify, understand, and respond to specific needs that can increase the vulnerability of children, as well as specific harms that can put children at risk, and how to further the processes, procedures, and responsibilities of other agencies, particularly children’s social care.
- Additionally, further information is given about storing and sharing information in child protection files (see Annex C Holding and Sharing information and Parts 1, 2, and 5 for specific details).
Information for all staff
Staff need to know:
- How to reassure victims that their allegation is being taken seriously and explain how the victim will be supported and kept safe.
- Not to give any indication or impression that victims are “creating a problem” by reporting abuse, sexual violence, or sexual harassment.
- Never to make a victim feel ashamed for coming forward to report.
- That the indicators of need for early help have been added to, and are now: where the child has a mental health need, a family member in prison (or parental offending), a risk of honour-based abuse (such as female genital mutilation or forced marriage), or is persistently absent from education (including for part of a day).
- The indicators of abuse and neglect, and to understand that types of abuse overlap.
- There is a new resource around sharing nude and semi-nude images that replaces previous advice on sexting.
Child Criminal Exploitation and Child Sexual Exploitation
- New information is included in Part 2 as opposed to Annex B.
- CCE and CSE (including county lines) can involve both boys and girls, though boys and girls can be exploited using different methods and they may present differently.
- Children who exploit – and have been exploited – in this way are victims themselves. This is sometimes not recognised by professionals.
- CCE can lead to CSE for both boys and girls.
- Children can be moved from place to place (trafficked) in order to be exploited.
- Children might become involved in these offences as a result of threats of serious violence to themselves and their family.
- Indicators of CCE might include serious violence, vehicle crime, and carrying weapons for others or as a sense of protection.
- CSE is acknowledged to be a type of sexual abuse.
- Victims of CSE may consider themselves in a “romantic” relationship.
- CSE can involve offences that are non-contact, such as those which occur online – for example, producing sexual images or sending nude images.
Peer on peer abuse
- This is tackled with more detail and direct information on the types of abuse that peer on peer can cover.
- There is inclusion of discriminatory/prejudice-based bullying.
- Sexual violence, physical abuse, and hazing can each contain an online element (such as encouraging this activity online).
- A new offence – of causing someone to engage in sexual activity without consent (such as forcing them to strip, touch themselves sexually, or engage in sexual activity with a third party) – has been added.
- “Sexting” can be either consensual or non-consensual and involves sharing nude or semi-nude image or video content.
- Upskirting – i.e. taking a picture under someone’s clothing for the purpose of sexual gratification, or to cause the victim humiliation, distress, or alarm – is now defined as being when the other person doesn’t give permission. Previously, it was where the other person didn’t have knowledge of it.
- Technology/online factors in safeguarding should always be considered.
- Staff should understand that peers can abuse each other online using using abusive, threatening, or misogynistic messages; by sharing nude and semi-nude images; and by sharing abusive images and (violent) pornography.
- All staff should know the school’s polices and procedures for dealing with this issue (including the zero tolerance of it).
- All staff should know how to recognise indicators of peer-on-peer abuse and how to respond to it; understand that peer on peer abuse is taking place – even if not reported; know their role in preventing peer on peer abuse; know to report to the DISL if a child is at risk of this type of abuse; know how important it is to challenge inappropriate behaviour which may be seen as “banter” “just having a laugh”, or “boys being boys” between peers so that abuse
isn’t “normalised”, which can prevent children reporting it; and know that this type of abuse occurs both inside and outside of school.
- Risk factors which increase the likelihood of involvement in serious violence have been added, including being male, having been frequently absent or permanently excluded from school, having experienced child maltreatment, and having been involved in offending (such as theft or robbery).
- The importance of engaging with parents is highlighted.
- There is recognition that children are at risk of financial types of abuse through online activity. There is now a further group for this type of online abuse which is now known as “commerce”, and includes gambling, online advertising, and phishing.
- Further examples are given in relation to inappropriate content that children may be exposed to (or creating), such as anti-Semitism; misogyny; self-harm; peer-on-peer contacts, and advertising.
- Schools must provide “an appropriate level of security” to protect users and their data (Para 131 has links to National Cyber Security Centre which has useful resources for Cyber Security in Education and keeping networks secure).
Child on child sexual violence and harassment
This section highlights:
- That this type of abuse takes place in school, outside of school, and online. It can affect any age of child but is predominantly an issue for secondary and college age groups.
- Staff need to be maintain an attitude of “it could happen here”.
- Intervening in “inappropriate” behaviour is important and can prevent abusive or violent behaviour.
- Victims of this type of abuse are likely to be distressed and there is a likelihood of it affecting their educational attainment – this is more likely where the alleged perpetrators attend the same school or college.
- Girls are more likely to be victims and boys are more likely perpetrators – however, any report or suspicion should be taken seriously.
- The abuse can be perpetrated by an individual or a group.
- Advice given to read Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment Between Children in Schools and Colleges which contains detailed information on a range of relevant topics (e.g. definitions, contextual issues such as power and coercion, and advice on a whole-school approach).
- Schools should have systems in place to deal with issues of sexual violence or harassment that are clear, easily accessible, and well-promoted, so that children feel confident in reporting abuse.
- Downplaying inappropriate behaviour can lead to a culture of unacceptable behaviour and ultimately to normalisation of abuse.
- Staff need to be aware of behaviour in children that might indicate there is an issue with sexual harassment or violence and act immediately.
- Responding to each incident well will build a trust in the systems so that victims will feel able to come forward in future.
- The need for care in listening and reacting to the child’s report (for example, listening well and not asking leading questions).
- That some children may face additional barriers in reporting because of vulnerabilities, disability, sex, ethnicity, and sexual orientation.
- Schools should be looking for patterns in all reports and identifying any broader issues that need to be addressed.
- Whilst victims’ wishes and feelings are of paramount importance, a school should not forget to balance this with its duty to protect other children.
- Sexual violence can happen in intimate relationships between peers.
- The links between this type of abuse and sexual and criminal exploitation.
- Schools should have zero tolerance to sexual violence and sexual harassment, and an important part in this is not tolerating or laughing off sexual banter or jokes.
- Where a report is found to be malicious or unfounded, the school should consider what the most appropriate step should be – it might be that the person has been abused by someone else or the allegation might be a cry for help. If the report was deliberately made up, schools should consider using disciplinary processes.
- Schools should be aware of the consequences of sexual violence and should be aware of all of the available resources for victims but also for perpetrators – many of which are linked at the end of the section.
- Nothing has changed in terms of a school’s requirements to fulfil their statutory and other requirements in terms of safer recruitment. The changes are mainly to give more detail around the process of recruitment. The sections
are now set out in a timeline for the process and give “good practice” information in relation to advertising, shortlisting, interviewing/selection, employment history and references, and reviewing self-disclosure forms (there are reminders that these should be in line with the Ministry of Justice guidance on disclosure of criminal records – plus a link to the guidance).
- In terms of pre-employment checks: 16-19 academies and training providers must carry out enhanced checks with barred lists for “regulated activity” roles (though these providers are not entitled to request separate barred list checks as schools can). These providers should follow all of the other regulations.
- Further information is given about birth certificates being the preferred choice of identification
- Separate barred list checks can be carried out either: (1) when all other checks have been completed and the school is only waiting for the Enhanced DBS to be returned. The individual must be accompanied at all times before the Enhanced DBS check is complete, or (2) when the person has been employed in regular activity with children in the past 3 months (and all other checks are complete).
- The section on S128 directions (checks) has been clarified.
- There is clarification about checks for individuals who have lived or worked outside the UK (this now applies to those in the EEA – post 31st December 2020). The same checks are required as with a candidate in the UK. A school may choose to request further information about these candidates and there is further information about this, e.g. criminal record checks from overseas/a letter from a professional regulation authority in other countries. There are also links to useful resources for undertaking checks – see in particular paragraph 262.
- There has been clarification of the expectations for agency staff/contractors and visitors. Checks must be the same as for other staff. In terms of record keeping, schools must obtain written confirmation from the agency or business that the Enhanced DBS has been obtained. Where the certificate discloses information or information has been disclosed to the business, then the school must obtain a copy of the certificate from the agency. Where barred list information is also required, confirmation must be obtained before the appointment. Schools should also check that the person who presents for work is the person to whom all the checks relate.
- For contractors – the main addition to the normal DBS regime for working in school (which
is set out at para 272 – 277) is that safeguarding expectations and arrangements should be included in the contract.
- The process for referrals to DBS is set out clearly under its own heading at para 329-322. There is also an expectation that the referral will include as much information as possible, as the DBS process relies on the quality of information it receives.
- There is a slight clarification to the Single Central Record, including a requirement to add individuals even
if they only work at the school for a day. Schools should remove the details of people who have left the school.
- This section has been split into two distinct sections. The first is where “the threshold” has been met and the second one relates to “low level concerns”.
- Paragraphs 338-404 set out in detail the process that should be used to manage a concern which meets the harm threshold, i.e. where the concern raised indicates the person would pose a risk of harm if they continued to work in their present position, or in any capacity with children a school or college. This process is very similar to that which is already in place (i.e. the Head will be the first point of referral and likely manage the case going forward – unless the allegation relates to the Head, in which case the Chair of Governors takes over), but it is set out a little more accessibly and has details which might assist in difficult decision-making, such as the merits of moving a child from a particular class following an allegation, suspending staff members, and allegations against supply staff and contractors. In addition, paragraph 339 deals with allegations relating to actions which have occurred outside of the schools and where there is a “transferable” risk.
- Paragraphs 406-427 set out a process for handling low-level concerns (i.e. those that do not meet the threshold but, as part of an open/transparent culture, should be dealt with). Examples of this might be poor practice such as staff taking photos of a child on their personal mobile phone or other mobile device, or a staff member picking on a child or having “favourites”.
- There is an indication that schools should have a policy covering low-level concerns (though this may be found in a staff code of conduct). The same system of referral to the headteacher should be used to report these concerns, records should be kept and information shared where appropriate, and records should be reviewed to ascertain any patterns of concern.
Further information on abuse for school leaders and staff working directly with children
- On CCE and CSE, note that imbalance of power associated with exploitation can be based on a variety of factors which make some children more vulnerable such as gender, sexual identity, cognitive ability, learning and communication difficulties, physical strength, status, and access to economic or other resources. Children who are victims of exploitation may need extra support to keep them in education. Children who are victims may display signs of sexual experience beyond their age.
- On county lines, there is a note that county lines recruitment is increasingly through online exploitation.
A list of indicators for children who might be being exploited through county lines has been added, including those who go missing and are subsequently found in areas away from their home; have been the victim or perpetrator of serious violence (e.g. knife crime); are involved in receiving requests for drugs via a phone line, moving drugs, handing
over and collecting money for drugs; are exposed to techniques such as ‘plugging’, where drugs are concealed internally
to avoid detection; are found in accommodation that they have no connection with (often called a ‘trap house’ or ‘cuckooing’) or in a hotel room where there is drug activity; owe a ‘debt bond’ to their exploiters; have their bank accounts used to facilitate drug dealing.
- Modern Slavery is added to this annex – the section gives a definition and gives information
about the National Referral Mechanism and gives a link for further information.
- Further information is given about domestic abuse, and there is reference to the adoption of the definition of domestic abuse in the Domestic Abuse Act 2021.
- On Prevent guidance, there is information added which asks the DSL to consider whether or not it would be appropriate for any information to be shared with a new school or college. This might be appropriate where, for example, a child is receiving support and it would assist the child for the information to be shared.
- Child abduction and community safety incidents are included with information on the importance of teaching children how to be safe as they become more independent. It is important to remember the dangers outside of the school gates and be alert to these. There is a note about child abduction which is the unauthorised removal of a child from its parents or those with parental responsibility. The guidance notes that this offence can be committed by strangers but also by family members.
- New information is added about cybercrime. These offences are dependent upon a cyber element such as unauthorised access to computers (e.g. “hacking”) which children may commit to (for example) change their grades; denial of service attacks (“booting”)n where the action is aimed at overwhelming a network; and attacks connected to malware. There is information about actions that the DSL should take eg referring to Cyber Choice programme if there is a concern about this activity occurring. This is a national system designed to steer children away from this activity. It is not available for activity involving cyberbullying or purchasing illegal drugs, or where sexual harassment is a factor. It is targeted directly at pure cybercrime.
- Paragraph 79 refers to Charity Commission guidance for charities and trustees to safeguard children.
- Paragraph 82 has information about developing a whole-school approach to safeguarding – putting children at the centre of safeguarding and ensuring that safeguarding underpins all relevant policies and procedures.
- Paragraph 105 contains further information emphasising the powers a school has to retain and use information for the purpose of promoting child welfare.
- Paragraphs 117 and 118 stress the importance of staff having online safety training and ensuring that children are taught online safety.
- Paragraph 143 has information about teacher dismissal – when a school must consider referral to the Secretary of State (via the Teaching Regulation authority).
- Paragraphs 146-148 contain new information for boarding schools, residential special schools, residential colleges, and children’s homes. This is about the signs of abuse and issues that they must be alert to in terms of safeguarding in a residential setting (e.g. peer on peer abuse), especially where there are more boys than girls and vice versa. There is also a requirement to work closely with the Local Authority, and there are links to National Minimum Standards for the different types of establishments.
- Paragraph 154 gives a link to support for helping children with learning disabilities, autistic spectrum conditions, and mental health difficulties to reduce the need for restraint.
- Paragraphs 155-156 discuss that, where a school is hiring its premises out, the contract should include appropriate safeguarding arrangements. Where the activity is provided by the proprietor or governing body and is under supervision or management of the school, the school’s child protection polices will apply.
- Paragraph 158 has links to new statutory guidance for Alternative Provision.
- Paragraph 157 and 164 add children in Alternative Provision and those missing education to the list of children who are potentially at greater risk of harm.
- Paragraph 167 has information about Elective Home Education and the role a school should play in terms of reporting to the LA children whose parents are considering Elective Home Education. There is also a suggestion that, in this situation, there is the need for multi-agency coordinate meeting with parents (ideally before the child is finally off-rolled).
- Paragraphs 169-175 contain further and updated information about the role of Mental Health Lead and programmes of training that are available. In addition, there are links to support from Public Health England.
Hopefully, this guide has clarified exactly how these two guidance documents have changed over time and has provided you with an insight into where your policies and procedures may need tweaking. Always keep on top of alterations – it’s crucial to follow them so you can ensure the continued safety of children.
What to Read Next:
- Regulatory Requirements for Designated School Safeguarding Officers
- Understanding Why Children May Stay Quiet About Abuse
- Child Safeguarding Quiz
- Designated Safeguarding Lead Training